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BOOK REVIEW: The Tudor Vendetta by Christopher Gortner

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Author: Christopher Gortner 
Publisher: St Martins Press
Age Group & Genre: Adult Historical
Reviewer: Kate Forsyth

The Blurb:
Winter, 1558: Elizabeth I has ascended the throne but the first days of her reign are already fraught with turmoil, the kingdom weakened by strife and her ability to rule uncertain.
Summoned from exile abroad at the new queen’s behest, Brendan Prescott arrives in London to face his shattered past. He soon finds himself pitted in deadly rivalry with his life-long foe, Robert Dudley, but when a poison attempt overshadows the queen’s coronation, Elizabeth privately dispatches Brendan on a far more dangerous assignation: to find her favored lady-in-waiting, Lady Parry, who has vanished in Yorkshire.

Upon his arrival at the crumbling sea-side manor that may hold the key to Lady Parry’s disappearance, he encounters a strange, impoverished family beset by grief, as well as mounting evidence that they hide a secret from him. The mystery surrounding Lady Parry deepens as Brendan begins to realize there is far more going on at the manor than meets the eye, but the closer he gets to the heart of the mystery, the more he becomes the quarry of an elusive stranger with a vendetta— one that could expose both his own buried identity and a long-hidden revelation that will bring about Elizabeth’s doom.

From the intrigue-laden passages of Whitehall to a foreboding Catholic manor and the prisons of the Tower, Brendan must risk everything to unravel a vendetta that strikes at the very core of his world, including his loyalty to his queen.

The Tudor Vendetta is the third book in Gortner’s Elizabeth I Spymaster Trilogy.

What I Thought: 
I’ve enjoyed this book hugely, as I’ve enjoyed every book in Christopher Gortner’s Spymaster series. He has a beautiful, easy writing style and each book is a fast-paced, action-packed, rollercoaster ride that still manages to bring the world of Elizabethan London roaring to life. 

The characters are absolutely spot-on, and the historical background is leavened into the dough of the story with a light, sure touch. The young Queen Elizabeth is made human in these books – an intelligent yet vulnerable woman who must fight to survive and rule. I also love the characterisation of the story’s protagonist, the illegitimate Brendan Prescott who is torn between love and duty in a way that rings very true. 

I’m hoping that Christopher will write many more books in this series – as long as he writes them, I will buy them. 

I interviewed Christopher a couple of years ago - you can read it here or read my reviews of his other books here. Or check him out on the web: 

Christopher's website 


SPOTLIGHT: Lorena Carrington & her exquisite fairy tale photography

Friday, November 14, 2014

Tonight I am talking about Respinning the Magic of Fairy Tales at the Wheeler Centre in Melbourne, and so it seemed a perfect occasion to celebrate the exquisite fairy tale art of photographer Lorena Carrington. Her words are so full of the beauty and mystery of fairy tales, and the hidden power of women. I am buying myself one as a present to myself for finishing my doctorate on fairy tales!

Please welcome Lorena!

Have you always been interested in fairy tales?

I grew up in a library of several thousand books on classical studies, myths & folk tales, and theological theory. I was read The Arabian Nights, Grimm, Anderson and many world tales at a young age, and at bedtime my mother would snuggle in and tell me stories that she made up, sometimes spanning several nights. These stories usually contained (probably by request) variants on dragons, apples that gave three wishes, and girls who went on exciting adventures.

I was drawn back to fairy tales on having my own children, Mari (11) and Rosa (9), and now read them for myself more than I do to them.

What first drew you to re-creating these old tales through a photographic medium?

My interest was first sparked in 2009 when I was part of an exhibition based on the Willow Pattern story; the English-created Chinese ‘myth’ to go with the now infamous crockery design. Layering the willow pattern design onto the landscape was the beginning of my silhouette work. It wasn’t a great leapt to get from the blue of the willow pattern, to the black silhouettes of fairy tales illustrations. A couple years later, I was part of another exhibition themed around the concept of ‘journeys’. Many fairy tales are based on the journey, and every tale is a journey into another world, so I used that exhibition to focus my developing interest in exploring fairy tales through photography. I haven’t looked back.

I’ve always been a photographic artist, but my technique has polarised over the past fifteen years or so. As a student, I was dedicated to the medium as a pure form. I used a large format camera, created my own developers from their base chemicals, and the term ‘over my dead body’ was my response to digital photography. Now, it’s all I use. 

Can you explain your creative process?

The process starts with a lot of reading, which is lovely. My works are sometimes inspired by the feel of a certain story, or by an imagined tale that makes its way into my head, but lately most of my works have been illustrations for specific fairy tales.

In some ways, my process is like painting or drawing, or even theatre. I begin with a blank page, and arrange the figures and landscape like actors and scenery on a stage. The figures perform the narrative, and the natural forms elaborate emotions and generate the ambience. 

Once I decide on the part of a story I’m representing, I usually begin with a sketch (if I’m organised) or at least a firm idea in my mind of what I want the final artwork to look like. With that image comes a list. For example, I might need a background image reminiscent of the sky, two walking figures, foreground landscape details, overhanging trees, some extra plant life, enough twigs (all photographed separately) to build a house, smoke for the chimney… I then head out into the wild to photograph, and also bring objects back into the studio. If I need silhouettes (almost always I do) I will backlight the subjects to get them as close to black as possible. This is the collection stage. I then sort through them in Adobe Bridge, and enhance their contrast to make a strong silhouette. I then save the images as separate files.

To create the artwork, I open up a blank image file in Photoshop, and start layering elements together. If the background image is integral to the composition, I will drop it in first, but there have been times when I’ve arranged all the silhouettes, and only then searched through my image collection for a background. I have a folder of ‘useful background images’ that I collect for this purpose. 

At this point I stand back from the screen with a cup of tea or glass of wine, ducking back in to adjust the position of a leaf by several pixels, or lighten and darken parts of the background. This part of the process seems to take the longest. A lot of my life is taken up with moving something five pixels that way, then three back, but I’m convinced it does matter. 

Once I’m relatively happy with an image, I save a flattened version (the originals can be made of more than 50 layers and be a few GB in size), and get an 8x10 inch test print done. I can then compare the screen version to the print, and make any further tonal adjustments necessary. 

What tales have you re-worked and why? 

My main project at the moment is an anthology of fairy tales about strong girls and women in pre-golden age fairy tales. So many stories of adventurous and independent women were lost to history; some as far back as when Anderson, Perrault, Grimm(s) et al were collecting tales, but particularly in the Victorian era when fairy tales were in their golden age. Victorian times meant Victorian values, and good girls were certainly not brought up for adventure and independence! 

I think it’s so important for children (girls and boys) to understand that we have traditional stories that were far more balanced than the rescued princess stories we have been lumped with. There is a lot of wonderful contemporary literature that addresses the gender imbalance in fairy tales now, but at the moment my interest lies in traditional stories of strong girls that have been passed down within their own cultural context. 

The story I’m working on right now is 'The Stolen Bairn and the Sidh'. It was reported to be an old Scottish tale in the 1912 book in which it was published, but I’m in the process of hunting for other versions for verification, as there seem to be strong elements of Celtic and Cornish mythology tied up within it. The story centres around a single mother, whose child is stolen by the fairies. She uses her own resources, and the magic held within a mother’s love, to rescue her son. It’s one of my favourites.

What (or who) inspires you, in your life and in your work? 

When I began working with fairy tales, I was very much inspired by golden age illustrators, particularly their use of silhouettes layered against rich colours; Arthur Rackham, Kay Nielson and Edmund Dulac. Jan Pienkowski too, was a slightly more recent inspiration. As I’ve delved deeper into the genre I’ve found many more fabulous artists, including many women illustrators. I recently collated a few into a post on my blog

I’m inspired by the fairy tales themselves, naturally, and also by the wonderful community of contemporary re-tellers and re-imaginers of fairy tales. Kate Forsyth (hello!), Danielle Wood (another incredible Australian writer), Angela Carter, Neil Gaiman… I could go on. It’s a fabulous genre, with so much to explore.

And of course I’ve been very much been inspired by my two daughters, who are my biggest fans, and most honest critics. 

Is your work for sale? If so, how much?

Yes, absolutely it is for sale! Where to start… Actually, I just wrote a long and tortured spiel about pricing, and deleted it. As with many artists, I think talking money is the hardest part. If anyone reads this and would like to purchase work, here’s a list of straight up artworks. For these and anything else, do please get in touch. All prices are in Australian dollars, and don’t include postage.

Limited Edition 20x16” (60x40cm) unframed print: $250
Limited Edition 20x16” (60x40cm) framed print: $500* 
Artist Proof 10x8” (25x20cm) unframed print: $95
Artist Proof 10x8” (25x20cm) framed print: $120
Postcards $2 each, or six for $10. 

*For overseas purchases, I would recommend an unframed print, and getting it framed yourself. The freight alone would be more than the cost of the frame!

I am also happy to print to a requested size, and take commissions, so feel free to get in touch to discuss options.

Email me at for any queries, or just to say hello. It always makes my day. If you would like some ways find me on the internet, my website is at I blog at Oh, and please do connect on Twitter - I’m @lorena_c, and tweet about fairy tales, art, literature… all and sundry.

Thanks Kate, for the wonderful thought provoking questions, and for profiling my work on your fabulous blog. I feel very lucky to have met you online, and hope to catch up in real life one day!

BITTER GREENS in Best Books of 2014 by Library Journal

Thursday, October 23, 2014

I've just had some very exciting news!

BITTER GREENS has been named one of the Best Historical Novels of 2014 by Library Journal in the US. This is really thrilling news for me - I was one of only two Australian authors named (the other was Liane Moriarty for BIG LITTLE LIES). 

BITTER GREENS has been out in the US for a month now and has been getting some absolutely wonderful reviews. 

Here are just a few: 

'I've never quite come across a book like BITTER GREENS and I highly doubt I will find something quite as magical and heartbreaking in the near future.' Scott Reads It

"You know those books that feel written just for you? It’s as though the author looked deep into your soul and wrote a tale with you in mind. Meet Bitter Greens. It really is as though Kate Forsyth peeked into my heart and crafted a story for me and me alone ... this really is a perfect novel." The Pretty Good Gatsby 

There is so much to this novel that there's no way possible for me to talk about it all in one review. This is the first book I've read by the author, and I was blown away. There is so much depth and life in the novel - with the intertwining story lines, beautiful imagery, and incredibly realistic characters, among many other things - that it can easily be called a masterpiece of fiction.' A Dream Within A Dream

I'm so glad that US readers are loving BITTER GREENS so much, because I poured my heart and soul into this novel. 

In the meantime, please forgive my recent silence! I'm travelling & touring & trying to finish my next historical novel for adults (a retelling of the Grimm Brothers' Beauty & the Beast, set in Nazi Germany).

BITTER GREENS: Juliet Marillier interviews me about the writing of my novel 'Bitter Greens'

Thursday, October 09, 2014

When BITTER GREENS was first published, Juliet Marillier interviewed me on Writers Unboxed - here is that interview for your reading pleasure:  

Kate, congratulations on this wonderful new novel and thanks so much for agreeing to talk to Writer Unboxed. Bitter Greens is one of those books that breaks out of recognised genre moulds – it’s part historical novel, part fairy tale, and part serious examination of gender roles, power and cruelty in 16th and 17th century France and Italy. What would you like our readers to know about the story ?

I began wanting to retell the Rapunzel fairy tale, which has fascinated and puzzled me ever since I first read it as a child. I’ve always loved both fairy tales and retellings of fairy tales, but it seemed to me that most reworkings of the Rapunzel story sidestepped the biggest problems in it. For example, why did the witch want to lock her in a tower. Why was Rapunzel’s hair so impossibly long? Why didn’t Rapunzel ask the prince to bring a rope so she could climb down and escape? 

The other big problem with fairy tale retellings, I think, is that they can lack surprise and suspense, the two ingredients I consider the most important in creating a compelling narrative. The stories are so well-known that it’s difficult to build suspense, or create switches and reversals, when the reader knows the story so well. Most writers solve this problem by subverting the tale, but this usually fails to surprise as well. I wanted to be faithful to the haunting, beautiful feel of the familiar tale, while still writing a gripping, unputdownable novel. 

JULIET: I loved the complexity of the novel, especially the way you intertwined the stories of three very different women.  Each thread is told in a different voice and each is distinctive in style. Did you plan from the first to structure the book that way? How did you go about putting the three threads together ?

I am a fervent believer in the importance of planning the internal architecture of a story. I think structure is the invisible underpinnings of the narrative, and any book which fails usually does so because of a poor internal structure. So I always think very carefully about how I’m going to build my narrative. 
My initial plan was to have the three narrative threads being equal in length, and braided together like a plait, so that the structure of the novel symbolically reflected the key motif of the Rapunzel fairy tale, the impossibly long plait. 

Usually I write in third person multiple POV, but I felt very strongly that the frame narrative, the story of Charlotte-Rose and how she came to write her fairy tale, should be told in first person. I had never written in first person before, but I really enjoyed it, and I found Charlotte-Rose’s voice came to me strongly right away. I wrote the entirety of Charlotte-Rose’s story, from the beginning to the end, indicating where I thought I would intercut with my other two narrative threads. 

I then told the story of Margherita (my Rapunzel character) in third person, and in a far more simple style, because this was a tale being told to Charlotte-Rose by another. Once I had finished the whole story, I then wove these two together, making sure I kept a fine balance between the two different tales. 

Only then did I turn to the third narrative thread, the tale of the witch Selena Leonelli, who is a Venetian courtesan, and muse to the artist Tiziano. Her story was much darker, and seemed to me to have a kind of potency or intensity, that would be dissipated if I broke it up to interweave with the other two tales. It woudl also mean too much chopping and changing. So I changed my plan, and made the witch’s tale the dark heart of the novel, the unexpected midpoint reversal which changed everything you thought you knew about Charlotte-Rose’s and Margherita’s stories. 

JULIET: You’re an extremely versatile writer, with a body of published work including award-winning novels for children and young adults, two best-selling fantasy series for adult readers, collections of poetry and an earlier literary novel. What drives you to keep challenging yourself as a writer?

I always think that the great dangers for any creative artist are smugness and predictability. Market pressures mean that writers are constantly being asked for more of the same, yet it is very difficult to keep writing the same storyline, with the same characters, and not start to feel stale and monotonous. 

I always want to write better than I have before, to keep pushing myself to create something fresh and unusual and exciting. I want my readers to know they will find a vivid, compelling, surprising and emotionally moving story every time they sit down with one of my books. It’s easier to win new readers than it is to win back dissatisfied readers. 

Of course, every time someone loves one of my books, they write to me begging me to write a sequel, or another just like it. I always tell them that I hope they’ll read my other books too, and love them just as much.

I know Bitter Greens was written as part of your work on a doctorate in fairy tale retellings at the University of Technology in Sydney (correct me if this is wrong.) How different was this experience from writing your earlier adult novels? Did the academic side of things put any constraints on the way you created the book? Was your process different?

I thought, when I first began to conceive and develop the idea of doing a retelling of Rapunzel, that it would make a fascinating doctoral project.  ‘Bitter Greens’ was a very research-intensive book to write, and it seemed a good way to maximise all those long hours reading through scholarly fairy tale articles.  I had actually written a novel before under university supervision – my novel ‘Full Fathom Five’ was written as my thesis for my Master of Arts in Writing. (Although I wrote it in my 20s, it was my eighth published novel).
I do not feel my doctorate put any constraints on me in a creative sense. My supervisor, the novelist Debra Adelaide, was more concerned in helping me find the voice of my protagonist, and to help me learn to be a better writer. 

I am always eager to learn, and so I was grateful to her for her close scrutiny of my work. I’m not used to showing my early drafts to anyone and so I did find that difficult, but she was very tactful.

I actually love writing articles and essays as well as poems and novels, and so I’ve been enjoying the theoretical aspect of the doctorate as well. I like to know everything I possibly can about a time or a place or a person or a subject before I write about it, and so I would have studied just as intensively for the novel as I am now doing for my exigesis. I am writing about the many different retellings of Rapunzel, from the earliest Maiden in the Tower tales right down to Disney’s ‘Tangled’ and the use of Rapunzel motifs in advertising and popular culture. It’s fascinating. 

JULIET: There must have been a huge amount of research behind Bitter Greens, though you use your historical material with a storyteller’s light touch – it’s never laid on too heavily. I understand you travelled to France and Italy with your children to do research. Tell us a bit about that.

I did! It was wonderful. I have always taken my children with me on research trips. They’ve been to London, Paris, Venice and Edinburgh, to the Isle of Skye, Sussex, Gascony and Lake Garda. They’re lucky children!

I feel it very important to actually go to the places I describe in my books. A writer doesn’t simply describe a mountain, or a lake, or a castle, or a city street. They need to imbue that scene with some kind of emotional significance. They need to know what the characters would hear, and smell, and feel. 

Kate writing in Florence

The book is beautifully structured. I particularly loved the Rapunzel poems by various writers that stand at the start of each section.  What do you think it is about this particular fairy tale that grabs people’s imagination?

Rapunzel is a tale about love, sex and power. Psychologically speaking, it is normally interpreted as a tale about a young girl on the brink of puberty who is kept locked away from the world by a mother-figure who seeks to protect her. Only by defying her mother, and coming to terms with her own sexuality, is the girl able to grow into maturity. However, like all fairy tales it is open to much deeper interpretations. 

JULIET: Some passages of Bitter Greens must have been exceptionally challenging to write. I’m referring in particular to scenes of sexual violence, part of your realistic depiction of the society those women lived in. I found parts of the book extremely disturbing to read. What were your reasons for choosing to present this material so openly?

It is true a few scenes were exceptionally difficult to write. In particular, the gang rape of Selena’s mother. I had to get up and leave the computer, and come back to it, only to flee again. Yet it felt important to me, both psychologically in the development of an understanding of what drove Selena to do what she did, and historically, to illuminate what life was like for women of that era. One of the things that most fascinated and disturbed me about the Rapunzel tale is that it is a woman who imprisons another woman. Why? What led her to do such a terrible thing?  Most retellings of Rapunzel never truly examine this, and yet it was one of the questions that first spurred me to explore the tale.

Although it was so awful to write, it seemed to have a ring of truth about it.

When you were first considering writing this, you said it would be ‘a dark gothic retelling of a dark gothic fairytale.’ It’s certainly a gritty and challenging story, revealing among other things the unsavoury reality behind the frothy and glamorous French court. Do you think most fairytales have that shadow about them, the darkness beneath the charming surface? 

I do indeed. It is one of the things that most intrigues me about fairytales. I love the haunting beauty of them, the magical strangeness, the joyous triumph over adversity. Yet I am also drawn by the darkness of them, the sense of a cost to be paid for that joy. 

JULIET: I understand you’re already well into a new project, a novel about Dortchen Wild, the Grimm Brothers’ ‘girl next door’. And it includes a retelling of a Grimm fairytale, ‘Allerleirauh’ or ‘All Kinds of Fur.’ Can you tell us about the new novel? 

KATE: Oh, yes, I’m completely obsessed with Dortchen Wild now, just like I was completely obsessed with Charlotte-Rose de la Force last year. I think I’m drawn to the forgotten, cobwebbed corners of history, particularly when it relates to extraordinary, neglected women.
A drawing of Dortchen Wild by Ludwig Grimm

Dortchen Wild was twelve when she met the Grimm Brothers. She lived next door to them, above her father’s apothecary shop, and was the source of some of their most compelling and unusual stories. She told Wilhelm Grimm ‘Rumpelstiltskin’, ‘Hansel and Gretel’, ‘The Frog King’, ‘Six Swans’ (a favourite of mine as you well know, Juliet!) and ‘The Singing Bone’ (about a murdered boy whose bones are used to make a harp that then sings to accuse his murderers). She told a very gruesome version of ‘Bluebeard’ called ‘Fitcher’s Bird’, the primary difference being that the heroine saves herself and her sisters, and a very beautiful version of ‘Beauty and the Beast’ called ‘The Springing, Singing Lark’. A key tale of hers was ‘Allerleirauh’ or ‘All Kinds of Fur’, better known as ‘Deerskin’ or ‘Catskin’ about a princess whose father wants to marry her. 

I’m interweaving the beautiful and rather tragic story of Dortchen and Wilhelm’s love affair with her tales, drawing upon ‘All-Kinds-of-Fur’ in particular (Dortchen’s father was a very stern and strict man who forbade her to see her one true love, and who may indeed have abused her). 

IN CONVERSATION: Kate Forsyth & Sophie Masson talk Fairy Tales (Part 3)

Wednesday, October 08, 2014

Kate Forsyth and Sophie Masson are both award-winning and internationally published Australian authors whose novels are often inspired by fairytales. Although Kate and Sophie live six hours drive away from each other, they often meet at literary festivals and conferences, or, when their paths cross, for lunch or dinner. They share a love of fairy tales, gardens, cooking, reading, writing, and living the big life. 

Today they get together to talk about the craft of writing, and the challenge of rewriting fairytales. Kate's novel Bitter Greens is a retelling of the Rapunzel fairytale, interwoven with the dramatic life story of the woman who first told the tale, the 17th century French writer, Charlotte-Rose de la Force. Sophie’s novel Moonlight and Ashes, was inspired by Aschenputtel, the Grimm’s version of the well-known Cinderella tale. This conversation was first published on the wondrous fairy tale e-magazine ENCHANTED CONVERSATIONS.


Kate: What are the biggest challenges of retelling such a well-known tale as Cinderella?

Sophie: The biggest challenges of retelling such a well-known tale as Cinderella is that people have certain assumptions about the character and the way the story goes. But it's my story, and so I've made it very much my vision of the character and the story arc. In fact the challenges are what make the story so good to write as you are constantly open to the unexpected that will transform familiar territory into surprising discovery. 

Kate: I think the key word there is ‘surprising’.  Many fairytale retellings lose that sense of surprise and wonder that is so important in hooking in the reader, and keep them wanting to turn the pages till long past midnight. I saw that as one of the biggest challenges in writing Bitter Greens. I decided one way to reinvigorate the story was to tell it as if it really happened, in our own world. The Rapunzel sections of Bitter Greens are set in Renaissance Venice, and feature real historical personages, such as the painter Titian and the fairytale teller Giambattista Basile (who wrote one of the earliest known versions of the Maiden in the Tower tale). I also chose to interweave the fairy tale retelling with the story of Charlotte-Rose de la Force, a scandalous writer of the late 17th century who wrote the version of Rapunzel that we know now. By making the story seem real, and entirely possible, I hoped to give the story new energy, filling it with suspense and surprise and spectacle. 

Sophie: Oh, yes, I do agree. Setting the story in a real place, albeit transformed, as Ashberg is a transformed version of Prague, really helps with that as the usual fairy tale territory is rather vague--once upon a time in a land far away. That said, the story really took off when I started with 'Once upon a time'--only that too was transformed, as readers will see when they read the book!

Kate: How closely do you stick to the known story? Do you feel free to invert, subvert, or generally play around with it? 

Sophie: I start from that familiar territory; I just make the journey go into different directions. I certainly feel completely free to do what I want, only I don't like to invert or subvert just for the sake of it, there's got to be a good reason for it. There's also a good reason why fairy tales continue to resonate with us--they really feel like they describe human nature and if you do too much consciously-ideological 'subverting' of that, it doesn't feel satisfying. But there's lots of scope to play around, still!

Kate: Cinderella has been retold so many times – what have you done with the tale that makes your work different?

Sophie: Well, most of all, my Cinderella--Selena--is no meek, resigned character. She can be prickly, and tough, but she's also got great tenderness and great intelligence. I wanted her to really be the heroine of her own story. But I also wanted the love interest to be interesting and strong, and to bring the whole setting alive in an unusual and exciting way. 

Kate: Oh, I love a bit of romance in a novel. Though isn’t that one of the reasons why we all love fairy tales so much? They’re so romantic!

Sophie: There’s more than ‘a bit of’ romance in Bitter Greens, Kate! It’s very steamy in parts.

Kate: Oh, I know. But the original tale told by Charlotte-Rose de la Force was really very sexy. Her heroine Persinette was seduced by the prince and fell pregnant to him, and their love affair was betrayed by the growing size of her belly. Later, when the witch cast her out, Persinette bore twins by herself in the wilderness. The Grimm Brothers changed the story so that any hint of sex was taken out, to make it more suitable for a childish readership. 

Sophie: Charlotte-Rose de la Force was not the retiring type either, by your account.

Kate: Oh, no, she was banished from the court because of her scandalous love affairs. One time she even dressed up as a dancing bear to gain access to her much younger lover, who had been locked away by his parents. It was this anecdote which first sparked my interest in her.

Sophie: one thing that draws many of us to re-writing fairy tales is the chance to give a voice and a sense of spirit to these fairy tale heroines who have been made so passive by re-tellers such as the Grimm brothers.

Kate: Okay, Sophie, let’s talk about craft. What’s your favourite part of writing a novel? And least favourite part?

Sophie: My favourite part of writing a novel is the beginning--so exciting, like being in love, an intense yet floaty feeling! Everything seems possible. And I love the end, when everything comes together in a kind of perfect symphony (hopefully!) I also love getting to know my characters, and also, in this kind of novel, creating magic.  My least favourite part is the middle--sometimes I have to push myself through it!  What about you, Kate, what's your favourite and least favourite part?

Kate: I love everything about WRITING the novel, even the times in the middle when the way forward seems unclear and you’re afraid you’ve lost the way. The only part I’m not fond of is the proofreading at the end, when I’ve read every sentence so many times it loses its freshness. However, I know it’s important, and it’s my last chance to make the book as good as I possibly can, and so I knuckle down and do the job. And it’s worth it when you finally get to hold the beautiful finished book in your hands ... now that’s a truly wonderful feeling! 

Sophie: Isn’t it? 

IN CONVERSATION: Kate Forsyth & Sophie Mason talk about Fairy Tales (Part 2)

Tuesday, October 07, 2014

Kate Forsyth and Sophie Masson are both award-winning and internationally published Australian authors whose novels are often inspired by fairytales. Although Kate and Sophie live six hours drive away from each other, they often meet at literary festivals and conferences, or, when their paths cross, for lunch or dinner. They share a love of fairy tales, gardens, cooking, reading, writing, and living the big life. 

Today they get together to talk about their fascination with fairy tales. Kate's novel Bitter Greens, is a retelling of the Rapunzel fairytale, interwoven with the dramatic life story of the woman who first told the tale, the 17th century French writer, Charlotte-Rose de la Force. Sophie’s novel, Moonlight and Ashes, was inspired by Aschenputtel, the Grimm’s version of the well-known Cinderella tale. 

Kate: Do you have a favourite fairy tale, Sophie? Which is it?

Sophie: My favourite fairy tale is probably Beauty and the Beast--it is so romantic and exciting but also it has such a spirited heroine! And I'm currently writing a novel, Scarlet in the Snow, based on the Russian version of the story, ‘The Scarlet Flower’. But I also love many others, including ‘The Firebird’, ‘Puss in Boots’, and ‘Sleeping Beauty’ (I’ve written books based on these ones too), ‘The Wild Swans’, ‘The Goose Girl’ (there are elements of ‘The Goose Girl’ in Moonlight and Ashes too), ‘Ashenputtel’, and many, many others.  How about you?

Kate: I love Beauty & the Beast too! And Sleeping Beauty, and, of course, Rapunzel. The story of Rapunzel haunted me for many years, and of course was the inspiration for my latest novel Bitter Greens. I became so obsessed by the story I’m even studying it for my doctorate at the moment. It has so much in it that’s intriguing for a novelist – obsession, desire, madness, secrets, love ...

But I think Six Swans has always been the one for me. There’s something about that mute girl, weaving nettles into shirts for her enchanted brothers, not permitted to speak or laugh for six long years ... it just gives me the shivers. I’m actually written a novel about the girl who first told ‘The Six Swans’ to the Grimm brothers, as well as many more of their most compelling and powerful fairy tales. Her name was Dortchen Wild, and she ended up marrying Wilhelm Grimm. It’s the most beautiful, dramatic love story, with a lot of darkness in it, but also beauty ... which really sums up the power of fairy tales, in general, doesn’t it? (This novel is THE WILD GIRL)

Sophie: It does indeed! It sounds a most intriguing novel, Kate. And it seems to me as if you are just as fascinated by the tellers of fairy tales, as much by the tales themselves.

Kate: Yes, that’s true. When writing Bitter Greens, my retelling of Rapunzel, I became so intrigued by the life and character of Charlotte-Rose de la Force, who first told the tale as we best know it ... well, she ended up dominating the book. She was such an amazing woman, witty, intelligent, headstrong. Her life scandalised the court of the Sun King and she was locked up for her wild and wicked ways. Dortchen Wild is very different ... but I’m now as obsessed with her as I was with Charlotte-Rose.

Sophie: I think it’s impossible to write a novel unless you’re obsessed with the story. I know I’m the same!

Kate: Sophie, so many of your novels are inspired by fairy tales. What most fascinates you about these old tales?

Sophie: I think fairy tales are extraordinary because they are so simple, so clear: and yet so rich and complex. You can never get to the end of their meanings, and they are the most wonderful source of inspiration for writers that I know of. The enchanted world they portray is both utterly magical and yet utterly believable; they are so wise yet so funny; so brutal, yet so romantic. They are distillations of understanding and knowledge; they can be profoundly disturbing; and yet they are also enormous fun. Why do you think we can get so much from fairytales, still, Kate? 

Kate: I love the fact that fairy tales operate on two levels. On the surface, they are magical adventures filled with wonder, enchantment, beauty, romance, danger, and a satisfying happy ending. On a deeper level, they are serious dramas that reflect, symbolically and metaphorically, problems and pitfalls that are can be very real in people’s inner lives. They offer a stage where the reader (or listener) can act out universal fears and desires, and so resolve deep, subconscious tensions that the reader  (or listener) perhaps is not even aware of. One more question in that vein: you've written a lot of novels inspired by fairy tales. Which is your personal favourite?

Sophie: Moonlight and Ashes, probably. I feel like I've said everything I wanted to say in it. It's very powerful and disturbing (and at heart, that story of the abused, neglected child is infinitely disturbing) but it's also gripping, exciting, romantic, magical and mysterious. I feel like everything came together perfectly in it, and that is very exciting. And I can't wait till it comes out so I can see if readers share my excitement!  But I do love my other fairy tale novels too, each in their own way. 

Kate: Although many of my books are rich with fairy tale themes and motifs, Bitter Greens is really my first true retelling.  I loved writing it so much, it is definitely my favourite. I love the way that these old, old tales still have so much mystery and beauty and power. 

IN CONVERSATION: Kate Forsyth & Sophie Masson talk Fairy Tales (Part 1)

Monday, October 06, 2014

Kate Forsyth and Sophie Masson are both award-winning and internationally published Australian authors whose novels are often inspired by fairytales. Although Kate and Sophie live six hours drive away from each other, they often meet at literary festivals and conferences, or, when their paths cross, for lunch or dinner. They share a love of fairy tales, gardens, cooking, reading, writing, and living the big life. 

Today they get together to talk about Kate's novel Bitter Greens, a retelling of the Rapunzel fairytale, interwoven with the dramatic life story of the woman who first told the tale, the 17th century French writer, Charlotte-Rose de la Force. Sophie’s novel, Moonlight and Ashes, was inspired by Aschenputtel, the Grimm’s version of the well-known Cinderella tale. (This conversation was first published with the wondrous fairy tale e-magazine ENCHANTED CONVERSATIONS)


Kate: Sophie, I’m so excited about your novel, Moonlight and Ashes? What first inspired you to write it?

Sophie: Moonlight and Ashes was inspired firstly by Aschenputtel, the Grimm version of Cinderella. It always fascinated me that the Cinderella figure in that story was much more active than Cinderella normally is; and it also was striking how there was no fairy godmother, but that it was her dead mother appearing to Aschenputtel in a dream and telling her to plant the hazel twig which made the magic happen.
At once, that not only makes Aschenputtel part of her own story, and not just a helpless girl to whom things happen--she actually wants to change things, she's not completely browbeaten. But it also reminds you of her loss--of her grief at losing her mother, and how that's transformed her life for the worse. And also that her mother can't rest in peace knowing what's happened to her daughter, and that her father is a coward who shuts his eyes to his daughter's situation. 

And then, thinking about it further, I wondered about the mother and the hazel twig: surely she must herself have had some kind of magical background. From thinking about these things, I had this growing picture of an angry, defiant but vulnerable young girl who is trapped in a terrible situation but who still has the spirit to want to change things: and who harbours a dark secret that she dare not reveal to a living soul: the secret of her mother's ancestry. That's how Selena, my heroine, was born.

There's another inspiration, and that's Prague. We visited it in 2010 and I loved it and was fascinated by its history. We also had the great privilege of being shown around Prague by another writer and good friend, the fantastic Isobelle Carmody, who lives there with her family. Ashberg in my book is very much an alternative-world version of Prague, while the Faustine Empire which controls it is based on the late 19th century Austro-Hungarian Empire, in fairy tale version: but still with trains and telegraphs and magazines and all! 

Kate: Oh, I love the sound of this, Sophie! I’ve always wanted to go to Prague, and I love the sound of an Aschenputtel story told with trains and telegraphs and so on. I’ll be so looking forward to reading this one! 

Sophie: Kate, Bitter Greens is such a wonderful book, so rich and exciting and deep and sad. Now I want to ask you: what drew you to Rapunzel as an inspiration for the book? 

Kate: The inspiration reaches far back into my own childhood, back to the time when I was first beginning to walk and talk. I was savagely attacked by a dog and spent weeks in hospital, suffering terrible wounds to my head and face. One of the dog’s fangs penetrated straight through my tear duct, located between the eye and the nose. I was lucky not to lose my eye!

As a result, I spent many years in and out of hospital with chronic eye infections. I’d be feverish, in pain, half-blind. My only consolation was stories – the ones I read and the ones I made up in my imagination. Anyone who came to visit me knew they had to bring me a pile of books. One day someone brought me a collection of fairy tales. One of the stories was Rapunzel.

I felt a great affinity with that other young girl, locked away alone in a tower as I was confined alone in my hospital ward. I loved the fact that her tears had the power to heal the prince’s blindness and wished that my own tears, weeping constantly from the damaged tear duct, would heal mine. 

I was as haunted by the story as the prince was by Rapunzel’s singing, but I was puzzled too. Why did the witch lock Rapunzel away? Why didn’t the prince fetch some rope? What happened to the witch? Did Rapunzel ever find her true parents? 

Don’t you find that it is often these little niggling questions about something that is the grit in the oyster that causes a pearl to grow? 

Sophie: Oh, absolutely! And I was so very touched by your recounting of that frightening and painful childhood experience—and how because of it the story of Rapunzel spoke so directly to you. I think that's so very much the power of fairytales. 

BITTER GREENS: The story behind my fascination with Rapunzel

Sunday, October 05, 2014

My novel BITTER GREENS is a retelling of Rapunzel and so I thought I would share with you the story behind my fascination with that particular fairy tale.

Rapunzel is one of the most mysterious and enduring of all fairytales, telling the story of a young girl sold to a witch by her parents for a handful of bitter green herbs. 

I have been fascinated by the Rapunzel tale ever since I was a child myself.

When I was two years old, I was savaged by a dog and ended up with terrible head injuries that resulted in meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain) and encephalitis (a life-threatening inflammation of the brain). I was very ill for months, spending most of that year in hospital and ending with dreadful scars all over my head (thankfully most of them are hidden by my hair). I had half of one ear torn off and my left tear duct was destroyed, and with it my ability to control my tears. My eye wept all the time. 

As a result, I was in and out of hospital for the next six or seven years, half-blind and racked with fever. I used to lie in my hospital bed, all alone in an empty children’s ward at the Sydney Eye Hospital, staring with my one good eye out the window. All I could see was a high green hill, crowned with an ancient Moreton Bay fig tree and the sandstone wall of the Art Gallery of NSW. It looked like a castle. I used to imagine myself galloping away over the hill, on my way to marvellous adventures. 

I think my fascination with Rapunzel began with my own entrapment in that lonely hospital ward. Again and again I write about people imprisoned in towers and dungeons, longing to be rescued. It is a recurring motif in my novels, most recently in my fantasy adventure for children, The Wildkin’s Curse, which tells the story of a wildkin princess kept captive in an impossibly tall crystal tower, telling stories to try and free herself. 

I love the story of Rapunzel because of the ardent love affair between the imprisoned girl and the prince who rescues her, and because of the miraculous healing of the prince’s eyes by Rapunzel’s tears. Rapunzel begins as a powerless child-like victim but by the end of the story she has become a magical agent of healing and redemption. 

Most people think that Rapunzel was first told by the Grimm Brothers in the early 19th century, but in fact it is a much older story than that. 

There are numerous Maiden in Tower stories in cultures all around the world, so many it has its own classification in the Aarne-Thompson fairytale motif index, Type 310. The first may well be from Christian iconography, with the story of Saint Barbara, a virtuous young girl locked in a tower by her father in the 3rd century. She was tortured for her beliefs, but all her wounds were miraculously healed overnight and in the end she was beheaded by her own father, who was then struck by lightning and killed. 

The very first time the motif of the ‘hair ladder’ appeared in a fairy story was in a 10th century Persian tale told by Ferdowsi (932-1025 AD), in which a woman in a harem offers to lower her hair to her lover, Zal, so he can climb up to her. He is afraid he might hurt her and so throws up a rope instead. 

The ‘hair ladder’ reappears in the story, Petrosinella, in the mid 17th century, as part of a collection of literary fairy tales told by a Florentine writer, Giambattista Basile. His collection, Lo cunto de li cunti (The Tale of Tales), was first published in 1634-36 and told the story of a princess who could not laugh. Various storytellers gathered to tell her stories in the hope they can amuse her, including one who tells the story of a girl, Petrosinella (Little Parsley), who is given up to an ogress after her mother steals parsley from the ogress’s garden. The ogress locks Petrosinella up in a tower in the forest, using her hair as a ladder to access the building. Petrosinella escapes with the help of a prince who heard her singing, overcoming the ogress by casting three magical acorns behind her that turn into obstacles that impede the witch and ultimately devour her. 

Sixty years later, the story appears again, this time in France. It is told by a woman writer, Charlotte-Rose de Caumont de la Force, who has been banished to a convent after displeasing the king, Louis XIV, at his glittering court in Versailles. Locked away in a cloister, much like Rapunzel is in her tower, Charlotte-Rose was among the first writers to pen a collection of literary fairy tales and one of the world’s first historical novelists. Published under a pseudonym, Madame X, Charlotte-Rose’s tales became bestsellers and she was eventually able to buy her release.

In Persinette, her version of the tale, the mother conceives an insatiable longing for parsley which her husband steals for her from a sorceress’s garden. Caught by the sorceress, he promises her his unborn daughter who the sorceress collects at the age of seven. Persinette is raised by the sorceress until she is twelve and then locked away in her tower (though the sorceress treats her gently and brings the child everything she could possibly want.) In time she becomes a woman; the prince hears her singing and chants the rhyme so he can climb up the ladder of hair to her room, where he seduces her (“he became bolder and proposed to marry her right then and there, and she consented without hardly knowing what she was doing. Even so, she was able to complete the ceremony” is how Charlotte-Rose rather coyly describes his seduction.)

Persinette becomes pregnant as a result, and in her naivety betrays herself to the sorceress when she complains about her dress growing tighter. The Grimm brothers later changed this to Rapunzel complaining about how much heavier the witch is than her prince, which at a single stroke makes Rapunzel seem extremely stupid. 

Then Charlotte-Rose changes the ending so that the prince is blinded, Persinette bears twins in the wilderness, and then heals her lover’s eyes with her redemptive tears. The sorceress continues to torment them, until the young couple’s courage and tender love for each other move her to mercy and she magically returns them to the prince’s loving family.

This story was then retold in Germany by the German author Friedrich Schulz, which is almost identical to Charlotte-Rose’s story except that he changed the girl’s name to Rapunzel, perhaps because it is prettier than parsley. A rapunzel plant is a type of wild rampion. It was then retold by the Grimm Brothers in their 1812 fairytale collection, becoming less powerful, dark and sexy with each edition until we have the tale that most children know today.

It is Charlotte-Rose and her version which provide the inspiration for my book. She was a fascinating woman – strong-willed, intelligent and fiercely independent – who once rescued her lover from imprisonment by going into his parent’s castle with a travelling troupe of performers disguised as a dancing bear! How could I not write a book about her?

This blog was originally published, in a longer form, at the fabulous fairy tale and folklore blog Seven Miles of Steel Thistles


BITTER GREENS: The facts behind the Fiction of the Sun King & his Court

Saturday, October 04, 2014

In recent months, I’ve been visiting a lot of Book Clubs who have read my novel Bitter Greens. Some have cooked me French onion soup; others have poured me fine French champagne. All of them have been full of questions.

Most questions begin ‘Is it true ...?’

Some of the most eagerly asked questions were about the court of the Sun King, and so I thought I would write a little more about this most imperious of kings. It is all really quite fascinating. 

Yes, it is true that the Sun King used to ride out in a coach with his wife and his two favourite mistresses. 

Yes, it is true that he married his bastard children’s governess (although he never acknowledged her as his wife).

Yes, it is true no-one except another royal was permitted to ever sit in his presence (except at the gambling tables, one reason why gambling was so popular with his footsore courtiers). Even his own sons had to remain standing, though his daughters were allowed to squat on little footstools, a privilege that they fought over bitterly.

Yes, it is true that courtiers had to bow or curtsey to any dish being carried to his table.

Yes, it is true that it was considered rude and vulgar to knock at a door. Courtiers grew the nail of their little fingers long so they could scratch at a door.

The etiquette of the court at Versailles was extraordinarily rigid.

Take the King’s daily routine.

He was surrounded at all times by his courtiers and soldiers – three or four thousand was the usual number.

Every morning, a chain of servants and courtiers passed each item of clothing to the king. For example, the Valet of the Wardrobe brought the King's shirt, passed it to the grand chamberlain, who handed it to the Dauphin, who passed it to the King. 

He had one servant whose only job was to present him with his golden goblet of wine. 

The King ate alone, watched by up to 300 people at a time. At one meal he is said to have eaten "four platefuls of different soups, a whole pheasant, a partridge, a plateful of salad, mutton hashed with garlic, two good-sized slices of ham, a dish of pastry and afterwards fruit and sweetmeats."

The King expected all noblemen to live with him at Versailles. Anyone who preferred to live on their own estates soon fell from favour. The King would simply say, ‘I do not know them’, and favours would be passed to those who danced attendance upon him. 
Louis XIV was Europe’s longest serving monarch. He reigned for 72 years and 110 days. He out-lived his son, and his two eldest grand-sons (all three were named Louis too). He was succeeded by his five year old great-grand-son, Louis XV. 

And, yes, it is true that vichyssoise was invented because it took so long for the King’s soup to reach him after being passed along a long chain of tasters to ensure it was not poisoned. If the King ate cold soup, everyone must eat cold soup. 

Read more about Bitter Greens here and BUY IT HERE 

BITTER GREENS: some recipes from the feasts described in 'Bitter Greens'

Friday, October 03, 2014

Gourmet Delights from Gascony

My books are filled with feasts. 

From larks’ tongue pies to gypsy stew, the food in my books is always carefully researched and vividly described. Part of my research always involves cooking, as far as possible, the meals I describe. (Larks’ tongue pie was a little difficult to achieve, I must admit).

My novel Bitter Greens has a feast scene set in the Chateau de Cazeneuve in Gascony, in which the baroness of the chateau rather reluctantly puts on a meal for the Sun King, Louis XIV, and his corrupt and decadent court.

Gascony is located east and south of Bordeaux, and is a beautiful, rolling, green landscape of orchards and vineyards and tumbledown chateaux, with the snow-capped Pyrenees floating high on the horizon.   

It is famous for its duck dishes – there are far more ducks than people in Gascony – creating the most delicious foie gras, confit and rillettes. Gascony is also the land of the cassoulet, a hearty peasant dish made with duck, sausage and white beans. Pigs hunt for truffles in the forest, and in spring the chestnut trees are in glorious flower along every road. 

Its other most famous invention is the delicious and heady Armagnac brandy.

I tried my hand at a few of the more famous Gascon dishes, with the most delicious results. Here are my favourites: 

Chestnut soup (Soupe aux Chataignes)
Soupe aux Chataignes is a very popular Gascon soup due to the abundance of sweet chestnuts which are grown here.
The primary problem of cooking with chestnuts is peeling them. The old-fashioned way is to score the chestnuts with a knife then bring to the boil in a large pan and simmer for about 10 mins, drain a few at a time and peel off the inner and outer skins while still hot. 
I find it easier to boil a few days in advance and leave– the skins seem easy to remove then. 
Easier still, buy a can of chestnut pureé from your best local delicatessen (cheating, I know, but infinitely easier). 
Serves 6
1 kg of peeled chestnuts or can of chestnut pureé
whites of 4 leeks, washed and chopped
55g of butter
3 potatoes peeled and chopped
4 carrots peeled and chopped
3 tablespoons of crème fraiche
salt and pepper
thin slices of French bread, brushed with oil and toasted
Melt your butter in a large pan with a lid, add leeks and sweat gently for 10 minutes. Add the rest of the vegetables and chestnuts, 2 litres of water and salt and pepper, then bring to the boil. Cover and simmer for 45 mins.
Pureé with a blender and season to taste, stir in the crème fraiche, add the French bread and serve.

Gascon Cassoulet with Duck Confit and White Beans
I travelled to Gascony with my three children, and spent a week staying near Saint-Émilion. We ate this cassoulet  in a tiny stone cafe overlooking the Romanesque church, on a chilly spring evening. I’ve done my best to recreate the dish at home
Serves 4
5 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
250g pancetta, diced 
1 medium onion, cut coarsely
1 pound dried flageolets or Great Northern beans, rinsed and picked over, then soaked for 2 hours and drained
4 fresh thyme sprigs from the garden
2 litre chicken stock
1 large garlic, broken into cloves and peeled 
salt to taste
4 pieces of duck leg confit, trimmed of excess fat
½ kg of French sausage – duck, pork, garlic – whatever you can get - sliced crosswise 
100g bacon, cut into cubes
2 cups coarse fresh bread crumbs
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
In a large saucepan, heat 3 tablespoons of the olive oil. Add the pancetta and cook over moderate heat until the fat has been rendered, about 5 minutes. Add the onion and cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 7 minutes. Add the beans, thyme sprigs and stock and bring to a boil. Simmer over low heat, stirring and skimming occasionally, until the beans are al dente, about 1 hour.
Add the garlic cloves to the beans and simmer until the garlic and beans are tender, about 15 minutes. Discard the thyme sprigs. Season the beans with salt and let cool to room temperature. Cover and refrigerate the saucepan overnight.
Preheat the oven to 180°C. Rewarm the beans over moderate heat. Transfer the beans to a large, deep baking dish. Nestle the duck legs, sausage and bacon into the beans. Bake for about 40 minutes, until the cassoulet is bubbling and all of the meats are hot. Remove from the oven and let rest for 15 minutes.
In a skillet, heat the remaining 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Add the bread crumbs and cook over moderately high heat, stirring, until browned and crisp, about 3 minutes. Sprinkle the bread crumbs and the parsley over the cassoulet and serve.

Apple and Armagnac Croustade (Croustade à l’Armagnac aux Pommes)
This looks and tastes amazing! It’s a little fiddly to make, but well worth the effort.
around 10 tablespoons butter 
6-8 large apples, peeled, cored and sliced as thin as you can
1 vanilla bean
1/4 cup sugar
1/3 cup Armagnac (use brandy or Calvados if you can’t find it)
8 sheets filo dough
1/2 cup caster sugar (or more, as needed)
1/3 cup sliced almonds, divided

For this recipe, I like to use a soft-sided silicon cake pan so you can remove the cake more easily. Spray with cooking oil.
Melt 4 tablespoons of butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Place the apple slices in a bowl. Cut the vanilla bean lengthwise in half and, using the tip of a small knife, scrape the seeds over the apples and drop the pod on top. When the butter is foamy, add the apples with the vanilla and the sugar and cook, stirring very gently but frequently, until the apples are soft and caramelized, about 20 minutes. Transfer the apples to a bowl and allow them to cool to room temperature.

Heat oven to 180°C. Melt the remaining 6 tablespoons butter and set it aside. 
Unfold the filo dough on your work surface and cover it with a damp towel.
Remove the top sheet of filo (re-cover the remaining sheets), brush it lightly with butter, and dust it with sugar. Gently and loosely crumple the dough into a circle and lay it into the cake pan. Sprinkle it with about one-fifth of the almonds. Repeat this procedure three more times, until you have four buttered, sugared and almond-sprinkled sheets of filo lightly layered in the cake pan. 
Spoon the apples into the centre of the croustade, leaving a border of a few centimetres depth. Working as you did before, butter, sugar and crumple a sheet of filo, fitting it over the apples. Sprinkle this layer with the remaining almonds, and cover this with another crumpled sheet of buttered and sugared filo. Do a little styling and draping; arrange the filo so it looks good.

Slide the croustade into the oven and bake for about 10 to 12 minutes, watching the top of the tart carefully to make certain it doesn't brown too much. The top should be just lightly browned. Remove the croustade from the oven.

Increase the oven temperature to 200°C. Butter and sugar another sheet of filo, loosely crumple it and place it on the last layer to make a light, airy crown. Bake the croustade for 5 to 10 minutes, or until lightly browned, then remove it from the oven again.

Butter the last sheet of filo and, once again, crumple it to make a crown. Place it on top of the croustade and dust it heavily with the remaining powdered sugar. Return the tart to the oven and bake until the top layer caramelizes evenly, about 5 to 10 minutes. Check the progress of the sugar frequently because it can go from brown to burned in a flash.

Read more about BITTER GREENS or BUY IT HERE!

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